Heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems vary widely in terms of the individual components that make them up and how they are set up within a building. Here is a list of the most common components, each with a brief description explaining their role within an HVAC system:
A network of pipes within a building will transport chilled and heated water and air to wherever it is needed.
Boilers produce hot water or steam to distribute around a building. This water is run through pipes and radiators and is the traditional approach to heating rooms. Most modern hot water boiler heating systems have a circulator, which is a pump, to move hot water through the distribution system.
Water and steam can also be heated using heating coils- another basic component within HVAC systems. The heated water can also supply an auxiliary heat exchanger with hot water for bathing and washing.
Cooling equipment chills water ready to pump into cooling coils. Treated air is then blown over the coils into the room to be cooled.
Pumps are used throughout HVAC systems to circulate chilled and heated water to the areas of a building where it is required.
Stale air is extracted using a fan, and expelled outside the building.
Controls are used to make the components of HVAC systems work together efficiently. They turn equipment on or off and adjust chillers and boilers, air and water flow rates, temperatures and pressures.
There are many different approaches to using HVAC systems, and buildings will typically use a combination of components to vary to amount of control available.